• 文/ 藍劍虹 Written by Lan chien-Hung

造形語彙的變貌和軌跡 The changing and Tracing of One Modeling Vocabuary


這個畫冊集子收錄的是李昆霖1996年到2001年六年間的主要作品。這個集子所收錄的作品很明顯地不同於上次以平面作品為主的集子(1989-1995)。除了《十三件信仰構成》(96’)、《五體投地》(97’)中的主要部分和今年的「銘印」系列作品之外,幾乎全都是立體裝置的作品。但是,除了「銘印」一系列完全平面的畫作之外,平面作品都參予了整個裝置構成中。然而,「銘印」系列畫作在東門美術館將與一部份裝置作品作獨立平行的展出。儘管這些作品以立體裝置為主,但是我們應當注意到,它們與平面作品有相當緊密的聯繫,其實可以視為彼此互相延展的作品。這一點與許多原本從事平面繪畫後轉而進行裝置作品的工作者有很大的不同,我們經常無法在他們身上看到平面作品與裝置立體作品之間的聯繫,反而更常察覺到其斷裂。相反地在李昆霖的作品中我們經常可以看到平面作與立體中作品之間的互相轉換和彼此滲透的現象,畫家其實花費了頗多心思在處理二度空間和三度空間的呼應問題,也處理了整體空間佈置和個別作品(不管是平面或是立體的;畫家的作品常是由眾多小型作品集合構成的)在形式架構上的問題,畫家也甚為關注作品展出時與展出場地的呼應問題。畫家力求整體作品的形式完整性的用心是相當突出的,也營造了極強烈的個人色彩。

將這個集子的作品與上個集子的作品(1989-1995)做一個比較的話,我們可以發現在造型的處理上有著連續性,後期(1996-2001)作品中的造型要素彷若是從前期畫作割裂出來而進行單一獨立的演化,一些個別甚至常出現的造型被集中、獨立處理,或經過放大變化而來,形式上,變得單一獨立,造型處理也更加豐富和細緻。我們也同時應當注意到一個重要的現象,就是儘管表面處理的細節頗為繁複,但是整體而言,畫家企圖從中抽取出一個意象式,或如「蛹」般,的造型語彙。畫家在造型語彙上的統一和集中經營的意圖是相當明顯的。比較於前期畫作,我們可以看到二度平面空間的完整性和敘述性的被棄置,後期作品明顯地片段化、碎裂化,並以各自獨立的方式呈現以突出其造型語彙和其表面細節。碎裂化必然引發平面空間的敘述性和完整性的喪失,取而代之的碎片之間的排列構成要求和新增加的立體作品之間的整體構成問題,這其實解釋為什麼許多作品是以平面畫作和立體作品混合構成的原因。將碎裂圖像集合組構成大型作品或是將其放大獨立再以群作方式組合是後期作品中慣用的兩種策略。其實,立體作品的出現,也應當被被視為片段話來突出造型的延續做法,立體物品的出現更加強的造型的立體感和具體感。有時是平面作品為主或是與立體物件混合組合而成(《五體投地》),有時則全部以立體作品來構成,如《芽與蛹的單向敘述》、《蛻變》。

我們首先可以在1996《13件信仰構成》、1997《鳥籠》和1999《五體投地》中看到大量擁有相同造型構成原則的小型作品的出現,它們在外表的細節處理上有頗豐富的細膩變化和差異,在相同的造型構成原則下,展現出不同的語調轉折和繁複的姿態:《十三件信仰構成》中的平面作品部分,其造型構成是模仿心理測驗中「蝴蝶圖案」,將各色油彩依畫家之要求灑佈,再對折壓印出雛形後再處理而成型態詭異不一的長型圖案。這些圖案除了色彩處理相當艷麗之外,圖像上具有相當多樣性的細節,它們集體地豐富了單一的造型構成語法。平面圖案前方平台,對應地,豎立著以造型不一的斷裂枯木,在斷裂木條上拼接以單一零碎之物件,如石塊、齒輪和廢棄的電子零件等不知名物件碎片,改變木塊原有的自然物體性質,而獲致了同一的造型語法,成了獨立的造型對象。我們也可以看到木塊下方的黑漆處理是為了塗掩削抹木質的自然感,這也是為了將其轉換為人工處理物。這樣改造後的斷裂木塊上的自然不規則肌理紋路儼然成了有如筆觸肌理呼應了平面畫作中的瑣細圖形。另外,立體柱狀木塊與平面圖案的呼應則是藉由重複對應來完成。

我們其實可以從這件作品的處理手法看到往後幾件作品的處理策略。在《鳥籠》中,我們可以看到這件作品是由對碎裂木塊或物件拼接的處理來完成的。木塊的形狀越趨多變怪異,其中混合了碎裂物件的拼接,並統一以紅棕色漆作全面性的覆蓋,抹除了木塊與拼接物件之間在質地上的差異,以達成造型語法的統一性。在《五體投地》中我們也同樣看到一件以海邊撿拾到的漂流木,拼接以圓形木球,構成極不規則富有造型變化的作品,其上隨著木塊紋理變化和不規則凹凸,以有如《十三件信仰構成》平面圖案上艷麗色彩繪上抽象不甚完整的女體圖像。而《五體投地》群作中另一件大型作品,則明顯看出是由《鳥籠》轉化而來,改變了排列方式和色彩處理。這裡我們可以較清楚地看到李昆霖這一系列作品中的語法規則了。如我們上面所說的,畫家將前期作品中的造型抽取出來作獨立集中的處理。但是放棄了原先平面繪畫中完全人為手繪控制的造型,而改採自動技法,也就是藉由如油彩壓印形成的不規則圖形或是藉由碎裂木塊、漂流木和零碎物品的即興拼接來構成造型原型。但是這並非是純粹的自動技法,因為第一,它們皆是在一定的控制之下形成,而且是符合了畫家所要加以處理的整體造型範圍。第二,在隨機營造的雛形出現之後,畫家使以各種不同方式的處理以抹除自然物的痕跡,並且繪製了畫家一貫的主題造型:由腿、軀幹、乳房等組合扭曲如瑜珈般的人體軀塊圖像。這些處理拉近了這些立體作品和平面作品之間的呼應。自動技法的採用,僅是畫家用來激發出造型表面細節和構成原型的方式。在《芽與蛹的單向敘述》中,我們也可以看到敷施在如「蛹」的造型物上細碎的充滿各式鮮豔色彩等從海邊、溪邊撿來的大小不一破碎廢棄物片,它們其實一樣是自動技法的一個延伸,經過挑選用以豐富單一造型語法下的聲調變化。另外,我們也應當注意到,在平面作品部分,畫家事實上也採用了自動技法來產生造型原型。《十三件信仰構成》中的平面作品部分便是依照油彩壓印技法產生的。而《五體投地》部份,兩件大型群作是由大量速寫、草稿集合而成。在一次與畫家的對談中得知,這些速寫和手稿完成的速度極快,每件完成的時間不到三、五分鐘,在這麼快的速度下的繪製可以說是幾近無意識的自動技法了。事後,畫家會略作修整賦予其形式上一定的完整性。這個處理方式其實與畫家處理立體拼接物品的方式相一致。

與一般使用自動技巧來刻意製造意想不到的混亂或是即興效果相反,李昆霖讓自動技巧的使用控制在一定的侷限範圍內,也相當成功地駕馭其產生的雜駁多音將它融入造型之中,從未讓它溢出主要的造型語法之外,其單一的語法規則反而因為自動技巧產生的細膩變調的加入而成為極為豐富耀眼的變化,宛若繁複華麗的詠嘆調。這使得畫家所刻意抽取出來的「蛹」的意象不會陷入單一重複的貧乏困境,紛亂的細節與不規則物體被畫家處理整合的頗為渾然一體,呈現出動態變異的美感,這點尤其在《五體投地》以漂流木為造型基底的群作中最耀眼。「蛹」的意象在《芽與蛹的單向敘述》《蛻變》這兩件純粹由立體作品構成的裝置中看的最明顯也最單純。在《芽與蛹的單向敘述》中「蛹」的意象以眾多集體的方式出現,以懸置或從地面豎立的方式陳設,蛹身灰白粗糙夾雜不規則物片,其實是畫家刻意選擇以呼應展出場地的灰色斑駁牆壁,讓那蛹狀物與整個場景融為一體。同樣的策略也運用在《蛻變》,只是呼應的不再是牆而是鐵道倉庫外的景觀色調,鐵軌的鏽紅色調。這是為什麼這兩件作品中沒有以往鮮豔色彩的處理,而削弱壓抑的色彩處理也讓意象更形突出。在《蛻變》中,「蛹」的外型有較多的變化扭動,使整個意象具有張力和動態,全部懸空的處理,彰顯營造出一股不安的騷動感,彷彿蛹內有活物。我們可以再今年於東門美術館後方的裝置展出中看到畫家對此一意象的持續經營。依據畫家提供的預備草稿和部份的作品來看,畫家慣用的色彩處理又回來了,並以穿透鑿空的方式來處理蛹身,部分蛹內部置有光源,營造了蛹之意象於夜空中的另一樣貌。光的處理,倒是提醒我們注意到了之前,如《十三件信仰構成》中平面圖像中耀眼的色彩處理方式,光源彷彿是從蛹狀物本身迸射出來。

綜觀上述幾件作品,我們可以看到畫家專注於構成一個越來越突出也越繁複的造型語彙,經營其繁複的面向,成就一個獨特的意象式語彙、符碼。「蛹」的意象彷彿是一個沒有固定意涵指涉的意具(signifiant),它繁複的變貌構成吸聚意涵於其內的載體,就像個蛹,而蛹身持續不斷的變異滿溢飽漲,也讓期待無盡地延伸停駐於羽化前的片刻。不同於蛹之意象對義涵的不確定指涉處理,畫家新近的「銘印」系列平面畫作則是逆向地處理「形」與「名」的問題。明確的標題指稱,如「狗」、「魚」「女人」和「山水」等,而對應的圖像則頗為明確地可讓觀者有所辨識。以濃黑粗邁的線條銘刻出一般物形,突出書寫造像的風格。其中部分作品脫離物像之描寫轉為抽象的書寫,逼顯出此系列畫作的形式風格重心:形象之構成與文字書寫的鄰近性。為物造象其實與書寫命名具有本源的關係。造象,其實不正是命名書寫的動作?這不也正是畫家命名此系列畫作為「銘印」的原因。數幅長條直立的畫作,線條的流轉轉折讓我們聯想書法的形式和篆書的筆趣,這難道不也是所謂書畫同源的某種樣貌呈現?其中數幅以純粹線條構成的畫作,甚至那些「山水」不正也像是某種不知名國度的文字、記號?線條的連接、流轉反覆編織所形成種種折縐形構出一個充滿形象聯想和意義的織體,線條宛如迴繞的道路,把我們帶向更具起源性質的原始閱讀經驗流動之中。相較於之前的作品,這是一個新的造型書寫經驗,也無疑地是值得令人期待的新作品。

This volume of works contains Lee Kuen-Lin major pieces between 1996 and 2001. This group of works apparently differ from the group which contains mostly painting last time (1989〜1995). Except "The thirteen construction of faith" 1996, "Iie down all over to the ground" 1997,and the most recently "Profound imprint" 2001, the most of these works are three-dimensional structures. However, the two-dimensional painting is also performing an important role in the whole installation. For instance, the most individual painting series-"Profound imprint" can also be treated as a parallel exhibit with the installation in the show at the Dong-Men Art Gallery. On the other hand, there is a strong relationship connects those sculptures to the plane painting ,they are two kinds of works, which grow and persist together.Unlike some follow the fixed path that the artist should give up the two-dimensional works in order to achieve the more complicated three-dimensional ones, Lee seems to achieve a harmonious way between those two mediums. Not only the artist solves the problem of arranging these two mediums together, Lee also carefully introduces his idea through the response of his works in the exhibitive space.(Despite the forms of different art works, each exhibition is usually constructed by separate fragment.)The intentionof of Lee tries to achieve a more complete status of his exhibition is obviously, it is also reflect the strong personal character of his.

To compare Lee's recent group of works to his last one, it has been noticed that the process of his produce shows a quality of continuity; the recent works (1996-2001) seem to simuiate some individual forms from the last group (1989-1995) and continue to evolve them. These forms started to develop as a specific modeling vocabulary to represent his idea for each works. It is apparently that the artist already begins to collect and unify his new kind of modeling vocabulary through the selecting from his early works. He abandons the completeness of the painting and breaks it into a whole new experiment. The breaking fragment rearranges and adopts itself into the three-dimensional structure, some specific image like the "Pupa" appears spontaneously around it. These regrouping and enlarging combination of his old fragment become the two major technique of Lee's new strategy. Actually the emerge of the three-dimensional works give a more clear and increased effect to those forms. It is appears clearly in both the combination of two mediums like "Lie down all over to the ground" and the totally three-dimensional ones like "The one way description of buy and pupa",or "Qualitative change".

First of all, there is great quantity use of the same constructive form in the small-pieces works like " The thirteen construction of faith" 1996,"Bird cage" 1997, and "Lie down all over to the ground"1999. On their surface there are many abundant details and differences between theses works, underneath there is still the same modeling shape build in one principle.The object in tne plane part of "The thirteen construction of faith" appears to be imitated the "butterfly patterns"in the psychological test, these long shapes of things are covered by variety of paint and many decorative details. It is the use of richening those dull and repeating subject matters.Relatively there are many broken woods stands on the platform in front of the painting. Some material like stone, wasted gear, and electronics parts are attached onto those woods. It's the same technique similar to the pattern that has been transformed in the painting. The black paint underneath the woods is another cover to erase their natural qualify, and increase the shining textur in order to recall the atmosphere in the painting. The repeating install of the woods is also the same strategy using frequently in this work.

Actually the arranging style of "Bird cage" can be seen as a representative of Lee's new strategy. It is a collage of even much detailed combination of woods. The shape of these woods becomes more and more weird and variable, and painted all over with reddish brown. This cover up of its identification tries to achieve the totality of the artist's special modeling vocabulary. In his another piece of work "Lie down all over to the ground",there is this huge log painted with the patterns similar to the figural image in "The thirteen construction of faith"

The other big piece of "Lie down all over to the ground" has also been transformed from his "Bird cage"but only changed its color and way of arrangement. It is obviously Lee has changed the craftsmanlike technique he had been used in the last painting series, instead he created some sort of "automatic technique" in which the whole idea about emphasizing the prototype itself would be more clear.In his another new work "The one way description of bud and pupa" there are plenty of colorful wasted objects from seashore or riverbank attach to the pupa like " models are a good erample of extending the use of " automatic technique". The single mode of style had become abundantly by choosing these variant tones. Further more, the prototype in Lee's new two-dimensional painting "The thirteen construction of faith" and "Lie down all over to the ground" are also adapting this "automatic technique" into their production. The folding image in "The thirteen construction of faith" are made of printed paint, and the large amount of sketch and draft in "Lie down all over to the ground" are made in a very fast of time limit. It took only three to five minutes to funish each sketch or draft. In sucha short time limit, it is almost near the slatus of unconscious or automatic reflection. The artist would repair and trim those forms with which could maintain the total of his works. This kind of handling process is quite similar to the way he uses for the three-dimensional collage.

Unlike the usual use of such "automatic technique" the impromptu and chaotic effect is controlled under Lee's painstakingly consideration. He seems successfully drive the variation info his own kind of modeling vocabulary, and wouldn't let it go wild. This variation becomes bright and dazzling that it almost like a resplendent chant. This is also the way of avoiding the predicament of the lacking change of patterns. The deserted woods perform a great effect in "Lie down all over to the ground" and the imaye of " pupa " is the most obvious and clear one to the works of "The one way description of bud and pupa "and "Qualitative change". This "pupa" -like image that shows as a group and hangs in the air, the pale and rough surface of it is the artist's purpose to reflect the eroding wall in the exhibiting area. The same strategy in "Qualitative change" refects not the wall but the scene from out side of the exhibiting warehouse. Parts of the "pupa" have a light source installed inside; a different kind of coloring atmosphere has emerged in the space. The light has the same function as the artist's artifice of the using of richening those dull and repeating subject matters. This technique reminds the viewers the shining colors hide behind tihe pupa-like shapes in "The thirteen construction of faith". some light source seems to burst forth through these objects.

Combine of these recent works above, there is a trend that Lee has leading himself inlo a realm with which he could build a structure made of a complicated modeling vocabulary, The image of the "pupa" is a signifiant" without any specific pointed meaning, so its variety of face changing is a container to absorb implication in it. In addition it is like pupa keeps on inflating and altering before the emergence. There is a contrary way of managiny subject in his another recent work "Profound imprint" The naming of each work is quite specific like "dog", "fish", "woman", or "landscape", and the reflected figures in the painting are also identifiabie The artist strongly draws the object's outline in thick and black lines to emphasis the calligraphy-like quality. The closeness between the constructing image and the writing letters is thc point of this series. To build the appearance of objects onto the picture has a simiar essential quality compare to the forming of writing. The long and hanging sheets of "Profound imprint" has a close relationship to the interest from traditional Chinese calligraphy. There is an old saying that the Chinese painting and calligraphy come from the same ancestors Serveral paintings in this series are painted purely in lines like "Landscape, that is " is like the letters or signs from an unknown country. The connection of the lines and the weaving of the wrinkles construct a body of endless imagination Those representative lines are also the roads to the beginning of each primitive reading experience. Compare to the earlier period of works, this is a brand new model of writing experience, and undoubtedly is the achievement to be well expected.

#2001 #2001exhibition #fromothers

8 次瀏覽

© 2 0 1 9  L e e  K u e n  L i n  a n d  L e e  L o  Y i  A l l  R i g h t s  R e s e r v e d.